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አለምአቀፉን የጠፈር ጣቢያ በጥቂቱ International Space Station (ISS)

አለም አቀፉ የጠፈር ጣቢያ (ISS) እጅግ ውስብስብ እና በታሪክ የሰው ልጆች የሚገርም የላቀ የአስተሳሰብ ጥበባቸውን ተጠቅመው የሰሩት እጅግ ግዙፍ የምህንድስና ውጤት የሆነ ህዋ ላይ የሚንሳፈፍ የምርምር ማእከል ነው። ይሄ በራሪ ሳተላይት አሁን ላይ ሆነን የምንሰማቸውን አዳዲስ የጠፈር ሳይንስ ግኝቶች ያስገኘ እና እያስገኘም ያለ ላቦራቶሪ እና ጂኦሎጂካል ምርምሮች የሚካሄዱበት ግዙፍ ተቋም ነው። ISS በአማካኝ ከምድራችን በ 400 ኪሎሜትሮች ከፍታ ላይ ይጉዋዛል። ምድርንም አንድ ግዜ ዞሮ ለመጨረስ 90 ደቂቃ ብቻ ይፈጅበታል፤ ይህም የሆነው ISS በሰአት 28,163ኪ.ሜ የመብረር ፍጥነት ስላለው ነው።

ማእከሉ በአንድ ቀን ውስጥ የሚጉዋዘው ርቀት ቢደመር ከምድር እስከ ጨረቃ ደርሶ ለመመለስ የሚፈጀውን ርቀት ይሆናል። ይህ የሚያሳየው ISS ህዋ ላይ እጅግ በጣም ፈጣን ጉዞ እንደሚያደርግ ነው። ISS ጥርት ባለ ጨለማ ሰማይ ላይ ከፕላኔት ቬኑስ ይልቅ ደምቆ ያለማጉያ መነፅር ይታያል። ነገር ግን በፍጥነት ስለሚጉዋዝ ወስን ቦታ አይኖረውም፤ በመሆኑም ISSን ሰማይ ላይ ለማየት የረጅም አመት ልምድ እና መቼ የቱ ጋር ማየት እንዳለብን ማወቅ ያስፈልጋል። ይሄን ግዙፍ ማእከል ለመስራት በስራቸው 15 ሀገራትን ያቀፉ 5 ሀገራት ተሳትፈዋል። የአሜሪካ የጠፈር ምርምር ተቋም (NASA)፣ የአውሮፓ፣ የካናዳ፣ የሩሲያ እና የጃፓን የጠፈር ምርምር ተቋማት በቀዳሚነት ይጠቀሳሉ። ሙሉ ማእከሉን ሰርቶ ለማጠናቀቅ 100 ቢልዮን የአሜሪካን ዶላር ፈጅቱዋል።

ISS በአጠቃላይ 391ቶን ወይንም 391,000ኪ.ግ ይመዝናል። ይህን የሚያህል ክብደት ያለው ነገር ወደጠፈር ይዞ መውጣት አሁን ባለው ቴክኖሎጂ የማይቻል በመሆኑ ተመራማሪዎች ማእከሉን ወደ 7 ንኡስ በመክፈል ሊወስዱት ችለዋል። በመሆኑም የመጀመሪያውን ንኡስ ማእከል የሆነችውን የሩስያዋን 'ዛራያ' እ.ኤ.አ በ1998 ወደጠፈር እንድትመጥቅ ተደረገ። ዛራያ ለ 2 ሳምንታት ያህል በጠፈር ላይ በምህዋር ስትንሳፈፍ ከቆየች ቡሀላ አሁንም ሩስያ ሰራሹዋ 'የኒቲ' እንድትመጥቅ ተደርጎ ከዛራያ ጋር ጠፈር ላይ በተመራማሪዎች ተገጣጥመው ወጥ ሆኑ። ሁለቱ ብቻ በምህዋር ላይ ለአመት ከመንፈቅ ያክል ሲዞሩ ቆይተው እ.ኤ.አ በ2000 ሌላኛዋ 'ዚቬዝዳ' የተባለችዋ ንኡስ ማእከል ተልካ ተገጥማለች። በመቀጠልም 'ዴስቲኒ' እ.ኤ.አ በ 2001፣ የጃፓን የምርምር ማእከል በ 2009 እና ሌሎችም ንኡሳን ማእከላት ወደጠፈር በመምጠቅ እና እርስ በእርሳቸው በመገጣጠም መሉ ማእከሉ ተሰርቶ ሊያልቅ ችሉዋል።

ማእከሉን በፎቶዎች ስናየው አንሶ ታይቶን ይሆናል። ነገር ግን የፀሀይ ብርሀን መሰብሰቢያ ክንፉን ጨምሮ ስፋቱ አንድ የእግር ኳስ ስታዲየም ይክላል፡፡ ISS በውስጡ ሳሎኖች፣ 2 መታጠቢያ ከፍሎች፣ ጂምናዚየም እና የተመራማሪዎቹ የስራ ቦታ ላቦራቶሪ አለው። ለግዜው በውስጡ መያዝ የሚችለው የተመራማሪዎች ቁጥር 6 ሲሆን ይህ ቁጥር ከግዜ ወደግዜ አዳዲስ ንኡሳን ማእከላት ሲጨመሩ አብሮ ይጨምራል። እነዚህ ንኡሳን ማእከላት በየጊዜው ዘመኑ የደረሰባቸውን የቴክኖሎጂ ውጤቶች ይዘው ነው የሚሄዱት። በቅርቡ 3Dprinter፣ የጨረር ግንኙነት መሳሪያ እና እዛው ማእከሉ ላይ የሚገጠሙ ተወንጫፊ የምርምር ሳተላይቶችን የያዙ ንኡሳን ማእከላት ተልከዋል። እነዚህን ማእከላት በከፊል የሚቆጣጠሩት ISS ላይ ያሉት ተመራማሪዎች ሲሆኑ ገሚሱን ደግሞ ምድር ላይ ያሉ ተመራማሪዎች ይቆጣጠራሉ።
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